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来源:托福考试   2016-04-02

generally篇1:托福考试评分标准

  新托福的每部分的成绩将转换为标准分后统一计算,具体如下:
  1、阅读:满分为42至45分不等,转换为标准分后满分为30分;
  2、听力:满分为34至36分不等,转换为标准分后满分为30分;
  3、口语:满分为24分,转换为标准分后满分为30分;
  4、写作:满分为5分,转换为标准分后满分为30分;
  因此,新托福最后的成绩将在0至120分之间。
  口语评分标准:
  新托福口语考试的评分标准与其它外语类考试的口语部分有本质上的区别。希望考生在看完本文之后能明白考试方向,并根据自己的特点去制定口语复习策略。我们来详细分析口语考试每个分数段的评分标准:
  四分评分标准
  ANSWER TO QUESTION
  The student answers the question thoroughly.
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
  The student can be understood completely.
  ORGANIZATION
  The student‘s response is well organized and developed.
  FLUENCY
  The student‘s speech is generally fluent.
  PRONUNCIATION
  The student has generally good pronunciation.
  GRAMMAR
  The student uses advanced grammatical structures with a high degree of accuracy.
  VOCABULARY
  The student uses advanced vocabulary with a high degree of accuracy.
  从上表,我们能够得知,口语分别从六个方面对考生的英文水平进行评估。后四个,流利程度、发音、语法及词汇与雅思口语考试评分标准相当。不同的是,新托福口语考试在语法和词汇的使用上要求更高一些。而发音和流利程度只要求是generally达到标准就好(generally=for most parts)。语法和词汇方面则是high degree of accuracy。大家对词法和语法方面经常出问题的话,这时要注意了。前三个,完整回答、可理解及组织语言方面,我们可以发现完整回答要求大家全面的阐述话题;学生自己的说的话应该能够被理解;组织语言方面,考生的Response应该组织严密,逻辑性强。这就是四分对各位考生的要求。
  三分评分标准
  ANSWER TO QUESTION
  The student answers the questions adequately but not thoroughly.
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
  The student can generally be understood.
  ORGANIZATION
  The student‘s response is organized basically and is not thoroughly developed.
  FLUENCY
  The student‘s speech is generally fluent, with minor problems.
  PRONUNCIATION
  The student has generally good pronunciation, with minor problems.
  GRAMMAR
  The student uses either accurate easier grammatical structures or more advanced grammatical structures with some errors.
  VOCABULARY
  The student uses either accurate easier vocabulary or more advanced vocabulary with some errors.
  从上表中,我们发现3分的评分标准已经降低了很多。大家注意副词及转折词的使用,如adequately but…。在发音和流利程度方面,3分允许大家出现失误。在语法和词汇方面,已经允许考生使用简单语法及单词,而且可以出现一些失误。相对于国内能拿到大学英语四、六级的学生,3分一般都是可以拿到的。
  二分评分标准
  ANSWER TO QUESTION
  The student discusses information from the task but does not answer the question directly.
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
  The student is not always intelligible.
  ORGANIZATION
  The student‘s response is not clearly organized and is incomplete or contains some inaccurate points.
  FLUENCY
  The student‘s speech is not very fluent and has a number of problems.
  PRONUNCIATION
  The student‘s pronunciation is not very clear, with a number of problems.
  GRAMMAR
  The student has a number of errors in grammar or uses only very basic grammar fairly accurately.
  VOCABULARY
  The student has a number of errors in vocabulary or uses only very basic vocabulary fairly accurately.
  一分评分标准
  ANSWER TO QUESTION
  The student‘s response is only slightly related to the topic.
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
  The student is only occasionally intelligible.
  ORGANIZATION
  The student‘s response is not clearly organized and is only minimally on the topic.
  FLUENCY
  The student has problems with fluency that make-the response difficult to understand.
  PRONUNCIATION
  The student has problems with pronunciation that make the response difficult to understand.
  GRAMMAR
  The student has numerous errors in grammar that interfere with meaning.
  VOCABULARY
  The student has numerous errors in vocabulary that interfere with meaning.
  我们发现2分及1分的平分标准已经比较低了。所以一般考生参加过培训都可以应对2分及1分的标准。
  总体上来看,新托福口语考试只有4分比较难取得,而1-3分都可以在培训后取得不错的分数。
  写作评分标准
  六分:文章切题,阐说充分,文章有说服力;段落组织有序,衔接紧密,过渡自然,有很强的逻辑性;段落内句与句连接顺畅,句式使用恰当,灵活,娴熟;用词确切,得体。文章中有个别语法拼写错误,但不影响内容表达。
  五分:文章切题,阐说基本充分,在某些细节上有缺陷。段落层次组织有序,衔接紧密,过渡自然,逻辑性强;句间连接顺畅,句式使用恰当,灵活;用词基本得体。文章中有少量用词不当和语法拼写错误。
  四分:文章切题,阐说尚可,展开不够。段落层次组织有序,衔接紧密,过渡自然,有逻辑性;句间连接基本顺畅;有部分句法错误;用词一般,有时不得体。词性区分和拼写等有若干错误。
  三分:文章切题,段落组织基本合理,有逻辑性,但只存在于语义层次上,语言表达上未能体现;句子框架结构基本成立,但有许多语法错误,句间联系不顺畅,往往是不善于使用逻辑连词,显得幼稚,生硬。词汇方面拼写错误多,常有用词不得体现象。
  二分:文章切题。阐说没有展开,只限于三言两语地回答问题;没有段落组织,很乱,长度很短,只有一段;句子排列有一定的逻辑关系,能看出各句基本框架,但结构或语法错误较多;用词不得体,拼写错误多。
  一分:文章各方面都有严重错误,句子不像句子。总体印象是根本没有写作能力,英语水平太低,够不上二分标准,只能打最低分。
  以上标准提醒我们:
  (1)作文要有一定的长度,以便将论点展开,把问题谈清楚。
  (2)文章应有若干段落,段之间应有很强的逻辑性,使文章连贯,呼应,有头有尾。
  (3)句与句之间衔接要紧密,不能胡乱堆积,给人一盘散沙的感觉。

generally篇2:英语听力教程3 第二版 unit1答案


  小面是小编整理的英语听力教程3 第二版 unit1答案,希望对大家有所帮助!

  Part I Getting ready

  A.

  B. Keys:

  1: burning of the forests/tree removal (deforestation)/reduction of the world"s rain forests 2: global warming/greenhouse effect/emissions of CO2

  Part II The Earth at risk (I)

  A. Keys:

  1.

  a. More people--------more firewood----fewer trees

  b. More domestic animals------more plants-----fewer available plants a, b-- More desert----move south-----desrtt expanding south----no

  grass

  2. Growing crops stabilize soil, without them the top soil just blows away. But if there isn"t enough rain the crops don"t grow.

  3. People try to grow food to support themselves or to create ranches where cattle can be raised, or to get hardwood for export, or to make way for an iron ore mine

  B. Keys:

  1: Sahara Desert

  2: North America & most of Europe

  3: top soil blowing away

  4: tropical forests destruction

  5: animal/plant species becoming extinct

  6: climate change for the whole world

  Part III The Earth at risk (II)

  A. Keys:

  1: Trees would hold rainfall in their roots. When forests in the higher up-river have been destroyed, all the rain that falls in the monsoon season flows straight into the river and starts the flooding.

  2: He implies that some national governments just consider the results of their policies in the near future, or just think as far ahead as the next election.

  B. Keys:

  1: flooding in Bangladesh

  2: Action to be taken

  3: population control

  Keys:

  1: Warming up of the world

  2: Effects of global

  3: reduced potential for food production

  4: change of patterns of hear-related food poisoning, etc.

  Part V Do you know…?

  A. Keys:

  1: F 2: F 3: F 4: F 5: T

  B. Keys:

  Dos 1: your towels 2: Cut out 3: a wall-fire 4: fridge 5: wait until you"ve a full load 6: a complete meal

  Don’ts 7: iron everything 8: the iron up 9: the kettle 10: to the brim

  11: hot food

  Tape script

  Part I Getting ready

  A.

  B.

  1.The Amazon forests are disappearing because of increased burning and tree removal. In September, satellite pictures showed more than 20000 fires burning in the Amazon. Experts say most of these fires were set by farmers. The farmers were attempting to clear land to grow crops. The World Wildlife Fund says another serious problem is that too many trees in the Amazon rain forest are being cut down. The World Wildlife Fund says the fires show the need for urgent international action to protect the world"s rain forests. The group warns that without such action some forests could be lost forever.

  2. Environmental issues swell to the full in Berlin this week, for the UN spongsored conference on global warming and climate change is the first such meeting since the Rio summit three years ago. With scientists and governments now generally ready to accept that the earth climate is being affected by emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, over a hundred countries are sending delegations. But how much progress has been made implementing the greenhouse gas reduction target agreed on at Rio? Simon Dary reports...

  B: That"s right. In the USA, as you know, intensive agriculture requires a plentiful supply of rain for these crops to grow, I mean if there isn"t enough rain the crops don"t grow. And growing crops stabilize soil, without them the top soil just blows away. This is also true for any region that is intensely farmed — most of Europe, for example.

  I: And what did you find in South America?

  B: In South America (as in Central Africa and Southern Asia) tropical forests are being cut down at an alarming rate. This is done so that people can support themselves by growing food or to create ranches where cattle can be raised to be exported to Europe or America as tinned meat. The problem is that the soil is so poor that only a couple of harvests are possible before this very thin soil becomes exhausted. And it can"t be fed with fertilizers like agricultural land in Europe. For example, in Brazil in 1982 an area of jungle the size of Britain and France combined was destroyed to make way for an iron ore mine. Huge numbers of trees are being cut down for exports as hardwood to Japan, Europe, USA to make things like luxury furniture. These forests can"t be replaced — the forest soil is thin and unproductive and in just a few years, a jungle has become a waste land. Tropical forests contain rare plants (which we can use for medicines, for example) and animals — one animal or plant species becomes extinct every half hour. These forest trees also have worldwide effects. You know, they convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. The consequence of destroying forests is not only that the climate of that region changes (because there is less rainfall) but this change affects the whole world. I mean, over half the world"s rain forest has been cut down this century.

  Part III The Earth at risk (II)

  A.

  I: So, Brian, would you agree that what we generally think of as natural disasters are in fact man-made?

  B: Yes, by and large. I mean, obviously not hurricanes or earthquakes, but take flooding, for example. Practically every year, the whole of Bangladesh is flooded and this is getting worse. You know, the cause is that forests have been cut down up in Nepal and India, I mean higher up-river in the Himalayas. Trees would hold rainfall in their roots, but if they"ve been cut down all the rain that falls in the monsoon season flows straight into the river Ganges and floods the whole country. The reason for flooding in Sudan is the same — the forests higher up the Blue Nile in Ethiopia have been destroyed too.

  I: Well, this all sounds terribly depressing. Um ... What is to be done? I mean, can anything be done, in fact?

  B: Yes, of course it can. First, the national governments have to be forward-looking and consider the results of their policies in ten or twenty years, not just think as far ahead as the next election. Somehow, all the countries in the world have to work together on an international basis. Secondly, the population has to be controlled in some way: there are too many people trying to live off too little land. Thirdly, we don"t need tropical hardwood to make our furniture — it"s a luxury people in the West must do without. Softwoods are just as good, less expensive and can be produced on environment-friendly "tree farms", where trees are replaced at the same rate that they are cut down.

  I: And, presumably, education is important as well. People must be educated to realize theconsequences of their actions?

  B: Yes, of course.

  I: Well, thank you, Brian

  B.

  I: So, Brian, would you agree that what we generally think of as ... er... as er ... natural disasters are in fact man-made?

  B: Yes, by and large ... er ... I mean, obviously not hurricanes or earthquakes, but take flooding, for example. I mean, practically every year, the whole of Bangladesh is flooded and this is getting worse. You know, the cause is that forests have been cut down up in Nepal and India ... I mean ... higher up-river in the Himalayas. Trees ...er ... would hold rainfall in their roots, but if they"ve been cut down all the rain that falls in the monsoon season flows straight into the river Ganges and floods the whole country. The reason for flooding in Sudan is the same — the forests higher up the Blue Nile in Ethiopia have been destroyed too.

  I: Well, this all sounds terribly depressing. Um ... what is to be done? I mean, can anything be done, in fact?

  B: Yes, of course it can ... er ... first, the national governments have to be forward-looking and consider the results of their policies in ten or twenty years, not just think as far ahead as the next election. Somehow, all the countries in the world have to work together on an international basis. Secondly, the population has to be controlled in some way: there are too many people trying to live off too little land. Thirdly, we don"t need tropical hardwood to make our furniture — it"s a luxury people in the West must do without. Softwoods are just as good, less expensive and can be produced on environment-friendly "tree farms", where trees are replaced at the same rate that they are cut down.

  I: And, presumably, education is important as well. People must be educated to realize the consequences ... um ... of their actions?

  B: Yes, yes of course.

  I: Well, thank you, Brian.

  The world is warming up. We know this because average temperatures are the highest since scientists started measuring them 600 years ago. The increase is about 0.2℃ every year. This may seem very slight, but we know that slight changes in temperature can have a big effect on other things. Most scientists now believe this global warming is due to human activity.

  Jeff Jenkins is head of Britain"s Climate Prediction Center. He explains how global warming can happen.

  "Sunlight strikes the earth and warms it up. At the same time heat leaves the earth, but part of that is trapped by carbon dioxide and other gases in the earth"s atmosphere. That has been happening ever since the earth was formed. But the fear is that increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by industrial processes and transport and so on will lead to a greater warming of the earth"s surface. So that"s the global warming that people are concerned about."

  People are most concerned about the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are oil, coal, wood and so on. When these burn, they produce the gas carbon dioxide. Many scientists agree that an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and some of the gases in the atmosphere will increase the amount of warming. Computers are being used to predict what this may mean. They showed that therecould be great changes in rainfall and the rise in the sea level as ice caps in the north and south poles melt. This could have a serious effect on agriculture according to Prof. Martin Perry of University College in London. He says it could become more difficult to grow food in the tropics at lower latitudes nearer to the equator.

  "The clearest pattern emerging is the possibility of reduced potential production in lower latitude regions, and most generally speaking, increased potential in higher latitude regions. Lower latitude regions are already warm, to put it extremely simply, and plants there are quite near their limits of heat and drought stress. An increase in temperature or reduction in moisture would place limits on crop growth."

  Woman: Global warming could reduce food production in lower latitude regions. Lower latitude regions are already warm. Global warming could put more stress on plans and place limits on crop growth.

  Food production is only one area that could be affected. There could also be health and social problems. Prof. Antony MacMichael of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine believes that some rural areas are already suffering. And the insects and bacteria could spread disease more easily.

  "Already a number of rural populations around the world are suffering from the decline of agricultural systems. Climate change would add to this. And we would expect that it would accelerate the flood of environmental refugees around the world. But it includes not just the food production systems, but the patterns of distribution of insects and infective agents around the world. It includes likely effects on patterns of heat-related food poisoning, water contamination and diarrhea diseases, lots of things like this that would respond sensitively to changes in climate."

  Woman: Global warming could affect the distribution of insects. Global warming could change patterns of heat-related food poisoning.

  Many countries now agree that something must be done to reduce the danger of global warming. But a worldwide agreement on lowering the production of carbon dioxide has been difficult to reach. This is because many economies depend on fossil fuels like oil. Scientists believe it"s now the politicians in every region of the world who need to take action.

  Part V Do you know…?

  Environment has taken rather a back seat politically since the Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro nearly 5 years ago. But the problems that meeting highlighted had not gone away. One environmental think tank — the International Food Policy Research Institute — has been looking at the future of water and its report reflects growing concern at the huge leap in usage over the past few years.

  In some parts of the world, water consumption has increased fivefold. And the institute, known by its initials IFPRI, says shortages could soon become the trigger for conflict and a major barrier to feeding the world"s growing population. Here"s Richard Black of our Science Unit.

  "It"s often been said that water rather than oil will be the cause of warfare in the next century. According to the IFPRI report, the time when that happens might not be far away. The number of people affected by water shortage will increase tenfold over the next 30 years, it says, which could well lead to large scale conflicts.

  The main reason why water is becoming a scarce resource is agriculture, which now accounts for70% of water consumption worldwide, 90% in some developing countries. Countless farmers have switched from growing indigenous crops for the home market to high yield export varieties, which inevitably need far more water. But the IFPRI report says that in some regions water shortage is now the single biggest impediment to feeding the population. Water scarcity also leads to water pollution. In the Indian State of West Bengal, for example, over extraction of water from bore holes has led to arsenic poisoning which is estimated to have affected two million people so far. But the IFPRI report calls for better water management worldwide including financial incentives to encourage conservation."

  That report by Richard Black of our Science Unit.

  Part II The Earth at risk (I)

  A.

  I (Interviewer): Brian Cowles is the producer of a new series of documentaries called "The Earth at Risk" which can be seen on Channel 4 later this month. Each program deals with a different continent, doesn"t it, Brian?

  B (Brian Cowles): That"s right. We went to America, both North and South and then we went over to Africa and South-East Asia.

  I: And what did you find in each of these continents?

  B: Starting with Africa, our film shows the impact of the population on the environment. Generally speaking, this has caused the Sahara Desert to expand. It"s a bit of a vicious circle we find. People cut down trees for firewood and their domestic animals eat all the available plants — and so consequently they have to move south as the Sahara Desert expands further south. I mean, soon the whole of Mali will become a desert. And in East Africa: here the grasslands are supporting too many animals and the result is, of course, there"s no grass — nothing for the animals to eat.

  I: I see. And the next film deals with North America?

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